Text for 160B:

Gerhard Borner, The Early Universe: Fact and Fiction, 2nd ed. (1992).

Matts Roos, Introduction to Cosmology, Wiley (1994).

Supplementary texts (for reserve and for the use of the instructor in
preparing lectures):

Dirac, The General Theory of Relativity, Wiley (1975)

Ohanian & Ruffini, Gravitation and SpaceTime, 2nd ed. (1994)

Longair, High Energy Astrophysics, 2nd ed. (1992--93);

Narlikar, Introduction to Cosmology, Cambridge 2nd ed. (1993)

Shapiro and Teukolsky, Black Holes, White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars (1983
--- paperback addition available);

Rowan-Robinson, The Cosmological Distance Ladder (1985);

J. Frank, A.R. King and D.J. Raine, Accretion Power in Astrophysics, 2nd ed.
(1992 --- paperback edition available);

Alan Lightman et al, Problem Book in Relativity and Gravitation (1975)

IDS 160B. Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology (4 units)

Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

Prerequisites: Senior standing in Astronomy or in Physics, or
permission of the instructor.
IDS160A, Physics 112, and either Physics 110A-B or Physics 137A-B.
A prior knowledge of Astrophysics comparable to that offered
in Astronomy 7 is useful but not required.

Elements of general relativity.
Physics of pulsars, cosmic rays and black holes.
The cosmological distance scale, elementary cosmological models,
properties of galaxies and quasars.
The mass density and age of the Universe.
Evidence for dark matter, and concepts of the early Universe and
of galaxy formation.
Reflections on astrophysics as a probe of the extrema of physics.

Postscript version of the original course syllabus.

IDS 160B: Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology

45 lecture hours --- 30 lectures --- 4 units
3 hours/week lecture, 1 hour/week discussion

- Elements of General Relativity (3 lectures)

Equivalence principle

Coordinate transformations and local Minkowski frames

Geodesic motion, gravitational redshift and gravitational lensing

Statement of Einstein equations

Schwarzschild and Robertson-Walker Metrics

Gravitational Lenses

- Pulsars and Synchrotron Nebulae (2 lectures)

Radio, O, X and Observations

Synchrotron Nebulae

-- Synchrotron Radiation

-- Nebulae - Relativistic Power Input by Pulsars

The Magnetized Neutron Star Model

-- Clock Stability

-- dP/dt > 0

-- Magnetized Spin Down model

---- Vacuum and Non-vacuum Models (Magnetospheric Voltage)

-- Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

---- Field Strengths - Normal and Millisecond Pulsars

Outstanding Problems (High Energy Particle Acceleration, Emission)

- Cosmic Rays (2 lectures)

Observations

-- Total Spectrum

-- Composition: propagation effects and lifetime

Cosmic Ray Origins

-- Supernova Remnants (qualitative - dimensional analysis)

-- Shock Acceleration (qualitative)

- Black Holes (2 lectures) (I taught 3 lectures including thermodyanmics)

Basic Structure

-- Particle orbits

-- Reality of singularities

Summary of other black hole physics

-- Evaporation

-- Disk accretion onto Black Holes

Thermodynamics of Black Holes

-- Entropy = Area, Temperature

-- Quantum States and Information

- The Expanding Universe (2 lectures)

Observational Motivations

-- Redshift (naive Doppler, relativistic effects)

-- Hubble/Quasar controversy

Evidence for a Hot Big Bang

-- Expansion of the Universe & Dark Night sky (Olbers' Paradox)

-- 2.73K Background Radiation

-- Primordial Element Abundances

-- Homogeneity and Structure

Friedman-Lemaitre Universes

-- Roberston-Walker Metric, Friedman equations, Newtonian analog

Evolution of Scale parameter in pressureless Universe

-- Critical density, open and closed Universes

-- Causality, horizon

-- Cosmological constant

- Structure Formation (3 Lectures) (see later)

- Determination of Cosmological Parameters (5 lectures)

- The Hubble Parameter --- Cosmological Distance Ladder (3 lectures)

-- Trigonometric Methods

-- Methods from Stellar Physics

-- Main sequence

-- Cepheids

-- Supernovae of type Ia

-- Planetary Nebulae

-- Methods from Galaxy Physics

---- Basic Properties of Galaxies

---- Tully-Fisher

---- D-n sigma

---- Surface Brightness fluctuations

-- The Basic Uncertainties

- The Density of the Universe (3 lectures)

Depth of Potential Wells

-- Virial Methods

-- Temperature of cluster gas

-- Gravitational lensing

-- Dynamical Methods

-- Principle: Observed velocity =

-- Inputs:

---- Velocity flows

---- Deviation from Hubble flow

---- Conversion of radial velocities to 3D velocities

-- large scale structure

-- Growth of density fluctuations

-- Various Estimations of

-- Uncertainties

Geometric Measurement

-- Measurements of curvature

---- Definitions of distances

---- Volume element

---- Luminosity vs. redshift (Sandage, SN Ia)

-- Number counts

-- Volume element evolution

-- Evolutionary diffculties

Conclusion: 90% of the Universe is dark

- The Age of the Universe (1 lecture)

Radioactive dating

Age of globular clusters

White dwarfs

Is the cosmological constant nonzero?

- Gravitational Radiation (2 lectures)

Weak Field Approximation, polarization, nature

Quadrupole Radiation

Binary Pulsar and Orbit Decay (and coallescence)

- Quasars (3 lectures) (I did not spend 3 lectures on this, though I did
have the class attend a colloquium by Martin Rees on the Black Hole model.)

Phenomelogy of Radio quiet, jet free QSOs

Phenomenology of Radio loud QSOs with jets

Black Hole in a Galaxy model for QSOs

-- Large scale disks

-- X-Ray and UV emission - blue bump

-- Disk Outflows - Jets

---- Observations of jets

------ Superluminal motion

------ Termination of jets in radio sources

---- Equilibrium jet models

High brightness temperature radio sources - relativistic on T_b

QSO Emission lines

QSO Absorption Lines --- Probes of the Universe at High Redshift

-- Gunn-Peterson Effect

-- Lyman- forest ---early galaxies?

- The Early Universe (6 lectures)

Thermodynamics in an Expanding Universe

Radiation Dominated Universe

Number of Degrees of Freedom

Evolution of Temperature

-- Fossil Radiation

-- Decoupling of Relic Radiation

-- Transparency -> Relic Backgrounds

---- Electromagnetic Radiation

---- Neutrinos

---- Gravitational Waves

---- Phase Transitions

------ Inflationary episodes

------ Topological singularities

The Microwave Background

-- Experimental Techniques

-- Spectrum

-- Large Scale Anisotropy

---- Dipole

---- Causality, horizon, inflation

-- Small scale anisotropy --- predictions and current efforts

-- Conclusions --- Fundamental intial conditions for galaxy formation

- Big Bang Nucleosynthesis & Baryogenesis (2 Lectures)

The Number of Baryons in the Universe

Baryon-antibaryon asymmetry

-- Experimental absence of antimatter

-- Potential explanation from particle physics

-- Expected large photon to baryon ratio

-- Primordial nucleosynthesis

-- Experimental determinations

-- Nucleosynthesis theory

-- Ratio of baryons to photons, cosmological limits to number of neutrino families

-- Density of the Universe in baryons

- The Nature of Dark Matter

Baryonic Dark Matter

Constraints

The search for dark massive objects: gravitational lenses and MACHOS

Non-baryonic dark matter

-- Summary of evidence and theoretical prejudices

-- Thermal equilibrium cases

---- Freeze out and relic abundance

---- Light massive neutrinos

---- Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPS): current searches

---- Other candidates

- Philosophical Remarks (1 lecture)

The Union of the large and small

Extremes of the behavior of mass-energy

The Big Bang to the formation of stars and planets

-- Origin of Life

-- Current ideas

-- Searches

We live in a special Universe?

-- Copernican principle

-- Anthropic principle

Cosmology and Mythologies

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